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SU APA LibGuide: Interviews

APA LibGuide

Personal Communications

The APA handbook defines personal communications as "private letters, memos, some electronic communications, personal interviews, and telephone conversations" (p.179).  

Personal communications, including interviews are not included in the Reference list.   You cite personal communications in the text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide the date the interview was conducted. 


J. Schwenn (personal communication, November 21, 2010)


Exception!  if an interview has been recorded and is available in an archive, then you would cite in the Reference list  (APA handbook, p. 213-214).


Smith, M.B. (1989, August 12).  Interview by C.A. Kiesler [Tape recording].  President's Oral History Project,

       American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.